Rooks, Towers, Castles and Chariots.

A rook ( borrowed from Persian ?? rokh, Sanskrit ?? rath, “chariot” )

The Rook was known as the Chariot in the Indian Chaturanga at first and was represented by the elephant figure., considered the division of heavy infantry in the game.
It was also known as the Ratha (Sanskrit ‘, Avestan ra?a) is the Indo-Iranian term for the spoked-wheel chariot of Antiquity.
It possesses powerful movement abilities, and is typically used in defense as well as for quick strikes to the opponent’s position from a distance.

In Chess the rooks represent the castle’s walls, which protect the king, queen, bishop, and knights.
The rook is second to the Queen in power on the board, and is above the Bishop, Knight and pawn in value .
The Rook becomes the king’s guard in a move called castling and is the only piece that interacts with the king while taking a turn to move.
The rook enters the game at any stage after the opening has been executed, it may be used for castling or as protection to other pieces and is more effective in tactical use to pin the opponents pieces, reinforce position and execute the endgame.

The strategy for a castle is to create a defensive perimeter to protect its inhabitants with in its walls from the enemy.
The idea of a fortress is universal to all cultures and those forts eventually evolved in to castles.
These massive forts were then added towers to become offensive posts to the approaching enemy.
Well built castles can be found through out the Persian Empire and well with in the Crusader countries.
Most of the first castles built predate the crusades but to determine who placed the Rook on the chess board is another challenge.
There might be too much burning haze to determine who deserves the credit for this.

Falak al Aflak Castle in Iran , … Castle Avila in Spain .